Σύνδεσμοι για Βιολογία/Γενετική/Επιγενετική

Quentin Matsys, The Ugly Duchess, c. 1513, National Gallery, London, UK

Ερευνητικά Ινστιτούτα/Κέντρα/Εργαστήρια

Max Plank Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Germany  The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine investigates the formation of cells, tissues and organs. Scientists make use of molecular-biological and cell-biological methods in a bid to discover how cells exchange information, which molecules control their behaviour and what faults in the dialogue between cells cause diseases to develop. The work of the Institute is dedicated to three closely intertwined areas. One field in which the Institute is active is stem cell research. Scientists study how stem cells can be generated and how they might be used to treat diseases. Another research area is that of inflammation processes, where one of the objectives is to fully understand the effects of blood poisoning. The third field of research is blood vessel growth, with the aim of identifying new targets for the development of therapies: blood vessels play an important role in many illnesses.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology & Genetics, Germany  How do cells form tissues? How do tissues form organisms? Cell and developmental biologists at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden devote their research to discovering how cell division and cell differentiation work, which structures can be found in cell organelles and how cells exchange information and materials. Physical processes play an important role here; processes which, for instance, influence the movement of molecular motors, such as actin and myosin. Model organisms like the fruit fly, zebrafish, roundworm or mouse help the 25 research groups to find answers to the very basic questions of life. Often, this research includes investigating diseases like diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer’s Disease or retinal degeneration.

Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Germany  All living organisms change – during the course of their lifetimes and across generations. The Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology is concerned with the development and evolution of animals and plants. The Institute’s scientists study how a fully functioning organism develops from a fertilised egg cell, and which genes are involved. They also analyse the role of these developmental processes in the emergence of new species, and examine the evolution of proteins. In a bid to find answers to their questions, the scientists work with model organisms, such as the zebra fish, fruit fly, threadworm and thale cress, a relative of the cabbage family. It has been shown that genes which influence development work in a similar way in different organisms – be they flies or people, thale cress or rice.

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Germany  All living creatures on Earth carry their own blueprint in their genetic material, the DNA. Research at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics is dedicated to decoding the DNA of human beings and other organisms. The Institute’s scientists study the function of genes and their role during development, from the fertilised egg to the embryo and on to the mature organism. They are particularly interested in genes that can trigger diseases when they malfunction. For a quick and precise analysis of the genetic material, the scientists rely on state-of-the-art sequencing devices, which can decode the entire genetic material of a human being within a few days. Special computer programs designed at the Institute help them to analyse and interpret the resulting data.

Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology & Epigenetics, Germany  Viruses, bacteria and other parasites pose a permanent threat to the survival of organisms. Most living creatures therefore have ingenious defence strategies in place with which to fight such invaders. The scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics focus on the development and functioning of such strategies. They examine how the immune system emerged in the course of evolution and how it develops from the embryo to the adult organism. They also analyse genes and molecules which are important for a functioning immune system. For example, they look into the factors controlling the maturation of immune cells and how chemical changes in the genetic substance DNA influence the immune defence. In addition to immunobiology, another research focus was established at the Institute in 2007: epigenetics. This science focuses on the inheritance of characteristics that are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence. This new research focus is expected to lead to a better understanding of diseases and cancers that cannot be defined in strictly genetic terms.

Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, Germany  All humans age – just like almost all other living organisms. One reason is that the genetic material, the DNA, is increasingly damaged over time in every cell. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for the Biology of Ageing study how cells age during their lifetime and examine which genes and environmental factors are involved in the process. The scientists employ molecular-biological and genetic techniques to explain the fundamental processes on the basis of model organisms, such as mice, fruit flies and threadworms. These animals are particularly suitable as their genomes are well understood and they have a relatively short life expectancy. It is known, for instance, that the life expectancy of a threadworm is influenced by around 100 genes and that insulin signal transduction is involved in the ageing of its cells. Researchers are certain that similar processes also influence ageing and life span in human beings. In the long-term, basic research is expected to contribute to people being able to enjoy longer and healthier lives.

Epigenetics Center, Johns Hopkins University, USA  The Epigenetics Center of the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences has brought together an outstanding team of multidisciplinary investigators to explore the epigenetic basis of normal development and disease. One of the Center’s major goals is to develop novel technology that will provide cutting edge tools to the Hopkins community allowing our scientists to make the first discoveries in this exciting frontier.

Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, USA   The Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) is dedicated to pursuing the promise of stem cell science and regenerative medicine. We are a network of more than 325 research faculty and their labs across the university’s schools, centers, teaching hospitals, and partner companies, working together to advance stem cell biology and discover new treatments for patients.

European Molecular Biology Laboratory     The European Molecular Biology Laboratory is a non-profit organisation and a basic research institute funded by public research monies from 20 member states and one associate member. Research at EMBL is conducted by approximately 85 independent groups covering the spectrum of molecular biology. The European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) is one of the world’s leading research institutions, and Europe’s flagship laboratory for the life sciences. EMBL operates from five sites across Europe: Heidelberg, Germany – main laboratory, Hinxton, UK – European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Grenoble, France – research and services for structural biology, Hamburg, Germany – research and services for structural biology, Monterotondo, Italy – Mouse Biology unit

Molecular Genetics & Epigenetics Program, Cancer Center, University of Virginia, USA   The accumulation of heritable genetic and epigenetic changes that result in loss of function of tumor suppressors and/or inappropriate activation of proto-oncogenes is a hallmark of cancer. The goals of the Molecular Genetics and Epigenetics Program (GEN) are to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie these defects and to uncover new targets for therapy, diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention. The Program capitalizes on the large number of outstanding investigators at UVA with research expertise in chromatin architecture, transcription, replication, mutation, repair, and cellular checkpoints in cancer. The Members are organized around four main themes: Chromosome function, malfunction, and cellular checkpoints; Epigenetics and cancer; Signaling and gene expression in cancer; Bioinformatics: mining information from human genomes.

Epigenetics ISP, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK  The Epigenetics ISP seeks to understand how epigenetic changes regulate genome function, especially during development and in response to external signals. We aim to identify adaptations important for healthy ageing and wellbeing, including transgenerational effects. The Babraham Institute is amongst the world’s 10 leading research centres in epigenetics research.

Szyf Lab, McGill University, Montreal, Canada    Professor of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Szyf is both a pioneer of and world leader in the field of epigenetics. His trail-blazing research has proven that while our DNA is pretty much set, external factors such as toxins and even the social environment can trigger a biochemical reaction in the nucleus of the cell that can change the way our genes express themselves. Once stimulated, a group of molecules called a methyl group attaches itself to the control centre of a gene, switching it off completely — altering gene function without altering the DNA sequence.

Campus Vienna Biocenter, Austria  The primary expertise of the Campus researchers lies in the areas of Cell & Molecular Biology, Computational Biology, Genetics, Microbiology, Immunology, Neurobiology, Structural Biology, Epigenetics, Developmental Biology, Stem Cell Research, Biochemistry and Plant Biology.

Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA    The Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT is founded on two core beliefs: This generation has a historic opportunity and responsibility to transform medicine by using systematic approaches in the biological sciences to dramatically accelerate the understanding and treatment of disease.The Broad Institute is committed to meeting the most critical challenges in biology and medicine. Broad scientists pursue a wide variety of projects that cut across scientific disciplines and institutions. Collectively, these projects aim to:Assemble a complete picture of the molecular components of life. The Human Genome Project was only a first step in laying out the ”Periodic Table” of life. Broad Institute scientists are working to extend this knowledge by identifying all of the functional elements in the human genome and revealing how these working parts vary both in humans and other species.Define the biological circuits that underlie cellular responses. Genomic elements work together in “circuits” that determine how cells in the body process information and respond to their surroundings. Researchers at the Broad are working to gain a complete understanding of this complex biological circuitry and how it functions in human health and disease.Uncover the molecular basis of major inherited diseases. The biological underpinnings of most inherited diseases remain a mystery, hampering efforts to prevent and treat them. Through comprehensive studies of genetic variation in human populations, Broad Institute researchers are working to identify the biological factors that influence susceptibility to a wide range of human diseases.Unearth all the mutations that underlie different cancer types. Cancer is a genomic disease in which cells accumulate genetic alterations (called “mutations”) that confer new, often deadly properties. Broad scientists are creating systematic catalogues of these changes across different types of tumors, laying a foundation for the development of new cancer therapies as well as new diagnostic tools.Discover the molecular basis of major infectious diseases. Viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens are responsible for an enormous burden of disease, especially in developing countries. Broad researchers are systematically defining the components in both pathogens and their hosts that enable pathogens to cause disease, knowledge that will bolster efforts to develop effective vaccines, rapid diagnostics, and new kinds of therapeutics.Transform the process of therapeutic discovery and development. Pharmaceutical science has not kept pace with biomedical discovery: only a tiny fraction of human gene products are now targeted for therapeutic benefit. Broad scientists are exploring ways to innovate the drug-discovery process, including synthesizing chemicals of unprecedented diversity; testing candidate drugs on living cells and tissues; pioneering methods to rapidly identify drug targets; optimizing drug efficacy and safety; and uncovering ways to increase the accuracy and efficiency of clinical trials.

Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA    Whitehead Institute is a world-renowned non-profit research institution dedicated to improving human health through basic biomedical research. By cultivating a deeply collaborative culture and enabling the pursuit of bold, creative inquiry, Whitehead fosters paradigm-shifting scientific achievement. For more than 30 years, Whitehead faculty have delivered breakthroughs that have transformed our understanding of biology and accelerated development of therapies for such diseases as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s,  diabetes, and certain cancers.Located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Whitehead Institute was founded in 1982 by businessman and philanthropist Edwin C. “Jack” Whitehead, who was driven by a single vision: to assemble a cadre of the world’s finest biomedical researchers under one roof and eliminate virtually any impediment to their pursuit of scientific discovery. He sought to create a wholly independent, self-governing institution with a close affiliation with a leading research university. His plans came to fruition with the help of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) biology professor and Nobel Laureate David Baltimore, who worked to structure an affiliation agreement with MIT and who would become Whitehead Institute’s Founding Director.

Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA    Every cure has a starting point. Like Dr. Jonas Salk when he conquered polio, Salk scientists are dedicated to innovative biological research. Exploring the molecular basis of diseases makes curing them more likely. In an outstanding and unique environment we gather the foremost scientific minds in the world and give them the freedom to work collaboratively and think creatively. For over 50 years this wide-ranging scientific inquiry has yielded life-changing discoveries impacting human health. We are home to Nobel Laureates and members of the National Academy of Sciences who train and mentor the next generation of international scientists. We lead biological research. We prize discovery. Salk is where cures begin.

The Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research institute @ Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada    The Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, located at Mount Sinai Hospital, is one of the leading biomedical research facilities in the world. Created in 1985, the institute is profoundly advancing the understanding of human biology in health and disease. Many of the breakthroughs that began as fundamental research have already resulted in new and better ways to prevent, diagnose and treat common illnesses ― bringing a healthier future to Canadians.Research institutes operating within academic hospitals have become the hallmark of leading medical centres in North America. For more than 25 years, the partnership between the institute and Mount Sinai Hospital has demonstrated the value of integrating research into the clinical setting and has distinguished Mount Sinai as a top tier academic leader.The Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum’s reputation serves as a magnet for recruiting world-class clinicians and clinician-scientists who wish to practice in a culture of inquiry and innovation. Close to 40 internationally-recognized principle investigators work in contemporary fields of investigation that are aligned with the Hospital’s flagship clinical programs and continue to make leading-edge discoveries in the prevention, detection and treatment of diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, breast/prostate/ovarian cancer, sarcoma, pre-eclampsia and complications of pregnancy, neurodegenerative and mental health disorders.

Διάφορα

Epigenie, USA  EpiGenie Web is the team of folks who scour through PubMed, watch out for interesting epigenetics press releases, conduct interviews with epigenetics researchers, and work closely with the technology providers to stay on top of the most applicable technologies driving epigenetics-related research.